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Chinese character JEN

The customs and virtues of Confucianism have had an impact for a long time. It is good for anyone who travels today in these cultures to know its central ideas.

Pu-Ji China's last emperor   and  Mao Zedong, former President of the People's Republic of China

After the Communists took power in China  from the last emperor of the Quing dynasty in 1911, Confucianism got into trouble. Until now, it had been the basis of the entire education system and the official religion of the emperors. The Communists condemned it as reactionary and slowing down the development of society. Today, it has again experienced a new rise in the eyes of those in power. (Picture on the right was taken in 2015 in Qufu at the Confucius Home Manor Souvenir Shop)


The Confucian idea of the human goal is fine  secular  level:  people to each other  social  relations  are more important than  rescue ideas  after death.  "We don't even know life yet. How then  would we know anything about death? ”From some Confucian texts, it can be said that Confucius believed only in the posthumous life of nobles if their heirs cared for the rituals of worship of their ancestors.

The purpose of Confucius was to restore peace and order to society, to bring the small principalities under the rule of one powerful emperor again. (This only happened after the death of Confucius) Of all the people, the emperor  to the average citizen, had to learn and know what kind of things in society they were expected to take care of and be responsible for their own actions.

Two key concepts:  LI  and  JEN  describe the customs and virtues of Confucianism.

LI  signifies good manners, courtesy, order, ceremony, customs, and respect. Confucius himself describes Lita: "Without Lita we do not know how to properly worship the spirits of the universe or how to properly define the status of king and minister, ruler and subjects, parents and young people, or how to define moral relationships between the sexes, between parents and children and between brothers or how distinguishes between different degrees of family relationships. That is why li is so important to a noble man. " When people live this way, everything goes well in families and across the state. In doing so, the path of TAO , an ancient Chinese doctrine of cosmic harmony, is also followed. Confucius saw the Tao as the divine law of the world.  Following good, true virtues  promote cosmic balance and harmony.

In yen  means human love and human friendliness. Everyone had to develop their own character in accordance with these ideals in all their human relationships. Confucius' central instruction was, "Do not do to another what you do not wish for yourself." This also resulted in a good society.  Man had to receive education and knowledge so that he could refine himself and help society to become better. "Everyone should strive for modesty. Everyone should be kind, loyal, moderate, trustworthy and honest.  A man who developed towards himself  such ideals were called  junji , gentleman. Junzin came to look for friends from those who were as noble as himself. "


The lower must be respected  its superior and superior duty is to care for its lower.

Father's attention

The gentleness of the older brother

The righteousness of man

The human tact of parents

The benevolence of the ruler

the boy's respect for his parents


the humility and respect of the younger


wife's obedience


respect for young people


the loyalty of ministers and subordinates

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