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 Why were the neighbors interested in us?

  At first it was  question only  East (Novgorod Trade Republic)   and West (Sweden)  old   trade relations  ensuring. Both sides wanted to secure the trading venues and secure  raw-   access to substances, as the Germans began to take hold of Russia,   Baltic and Scandinavian trade.

The merchants had been accompanied  first from the east influences  Christianity. This is indicated by the many words of Russian origin left in our language of the Kirstic vocabulary: priest, cross, bible, godfather. The Russians had embraced Christianity in the late 9th century in the form of an Orthodox church. The conversion of Sweden to Christianity took place from the 8th century onwards by the Western Church (Catholic Church).  through the agency of.

For Finns  the adoption of Christianity in the early stages took place without coercion. From the grave finds it can be concluded that the position of the Catholic Church gradually strengthened: the deceased were no longer burned but were laid in the grave in a west-east direction, facing east from where the sun and resurrection were expected.  To the grave  may have been placed on the neck of the deceased. Findings of objects with Christian symbols and Latin text also speak in favor of the arrival of Christianity. For example, a sword dating back to the 9th century with the text: In nomine Domini, in the name of the Lord.

It is estimated that  Christianity would have been established even before it was assumed  the first crusade  In southwestern Finland and Häme by 1150, but only in Karelia  about 1300.  As early as 1142, there is information to suggest that the King of Sweden, together with the bishop, made an expedition in the direction of Neva-Ladoga. So this was  first time Sweden  and Novgorod were  as opposing states. This may have been a crusade, because the bishop was involved, and at that time there was also a call from Pope Eugene III to carry out crusades.  Crusades to the Holy Land.  The information provided by both archaeological and historical sources on the conversion of Finns to Christianity is mutually supportive.

When the Western Church adopted the ideology of the Crusade, this led to animosity between the denominations, leaving the area inhabited by Finns a battleground for the denominations.










The first crusade 1157

The information about the first crusade to Finland largely consists of about 100 years of the actual  from the biography of St. Erik’s saints born after the events and the bishop  About Henry's legend and only  the significance of the death stream of Bishop Henry in the new age. It has been difficult for scholars to discern what is a pious sacrament in these accounts and what is true. Today, most scholars believe that the so-called first crusade took place around 1157 and was indeed accompanied by the English-born Bishop Henrik and King Erik of Sweden.

The nature of the crusade was not warlike, but the small army involved apparently guaranteed Eerik the opportunity to form some kind of alliance with the Finns.  In particular, the intention had been to subjugate all Swedish tribes to their own power.  The bishop's job was to organize the ecclesiastical administration  and not forced dipping (as the illustration of the coffin suggests)







































Bishop Henry

Henrik was  Finland's first bishop. King Erik  during his reign, Henrik probably served as a mission bishop in the Baltic Sea region. He lived in Uppsala and was fourth in Uppsala  bishop. He worked hard to establish Christianity in the area entrusted to him, but time remained short.

The exact place where King Erik and Bishop Henrik landed in Finland is not known exactly. Perhaps for the Kalanti or present-day Uusikaupunki region, there is one estimate.

According to Bishop Henrik's death stream, the course of events was as follows:

According to medieval sources, the bishop was killed as early as about a year after arriving in the country  20.1. That day a lone sleigh rode on the ice of Lake Köyliönjärvi in the cold winter air. Reee had Bishop Henrik and his driver. The bishop lamented his long-distance strains and starvation. In the middle of the beautiful scenery, Lalloila, the home of the peasant Lalli, located on the peninsula of what is now Kirkkosaari, hit them. They decided to eat and rest there. The bishop knocked on the door and Lalli's wife Kerttu opened the door. They asked him for food and drink. Lalli was in the woods checking traps. As the evening dawned, Lalli began to ski home.  Nuuk's mistress Kerttu offered the bishop's party the worst food in the house and, aroused by this, the bishop told his driver to take a roast from the top of the oven, beer from the basement and hay from the barn to the horse. These the bishop ordered to pay Kertu with gold coins. Bitter to the bishop, Kerttu hid the money, and when Lalli came home, Kerttu lied that the bishop had taken food and hay and paid with stones and ashes. Lalli went on a wild chase with his axes and reached Bishop Henrik at the present Kirkkokari when this sleigh fell. 

Lalli, blinded by anger, did not listen to the church man's speech but let the ax speak his own language, and soon the holy man's blood spilled onto the ice of Lake Köyliönjärvi.

Killing work and its  many legends are told about the events after. According to one story, after the murder work, Lalli put the bishop's beak on his head and when he took it off, his hair and scalp came off with the hat.

When the next spring came, the finger cut off by the bishop was found, according to another legend, with its rings on the ice board with a roaring raven and its healing effect.  a man from Köyliö regained his sight after touching it. It is also said that after the killing work, Lalli lived, escaping and hiding for a long time, and after a long getaway, he was killed by drowning in Harirvalta's Hiirijärvi, chased by a huge herd of mice.

It is interesting to note in the report that  Opponents of Bishop Henrik: Kerttu and Lalli are names of Christian origin. Controversy at Lalli's house  indeed could arise from the entertainment tax (food Swedish) that the new faith had brought with it: Priests had to be built, priests had to be hired.

To the place of death,  to a small island, was built  In the 14th century, a memorial chapel, according to which the island is still called Kirkkokari. The chapel has been destroyed over time, and today only a few stones and almost completely decayed logs remain. This Kirkkokari in Köyliönjärvi became a popular destination for walks in the Middle Ages, and even today Finnish Catholics make a pilgrimage there on a Sunday around mid-June to honor the memory of Bishop Henrik.

It has been speculated that the canonization of Henry, or the proclamation of a saint  has taken place by decision of a bishop or archbishop of a region. On June 17, 1300, when the Turku Cathedral was inaugurated, Henrik and the Cathedral  so the roads together.

The day after the inauguration, June 18, St. Henry's Translation Day was celebrated. The Ascendants, who had become the first center of the mission diocese,  the preserved relics, the bones of Bishop Henrik, or at least part of them, were solemnly transported from Nousiainen Tomb to Turku Cathedral and placed on the then main altar. Thus, this day, June 18, also became Henry’s Memorial Day.




With these words begins the first historical document concerning Finland. The document is from Pope Alexander III  A bull sent to the bishop of Uppsala from 1171. About Finns (here means Southwest Finland)  it had been complained to the pope that they always promised to be decent Christians when the enemies threatened, but when the danger receded they denied their faith and persecuted the churchmen. The persecutors are thought to have been Karelian and Russian. The pope demanded decent guarantees of the Finns' faith before the Swedes had to give their help.


Letter from Pope Innocent III  1216 officially gave the King of Sweden the right to own the territory of Finland, "which his predecessors had taken from the Gentiles." At the same time, the Pope agreed to place one or two bishops under the Archbishop of Uppsala in Finland. The English-born Bishop Thomas was appointed a few years later.

Bishop Tuomas remained in history as a stubborn man who supported the principle of the Crusades. He applied this to establish Häme within the Catholic Church. The people of Häme also wanted the Church of the East and the Prince of Novgorod. For this reason, the Pope called on the Swedes to crusade Novgorod and the people of Häme. The Häme rebellion was suppressed, but the Swedes suffered a defeat in 1240  On the Neva River, where  with Bishop Thomas  there were Finns involved. The final defeat took place a couple of years later in Lake Peipsjärvi.  The winner, Alexander Nevsky (Nevalainen), became the national saint of Russia. Bishop Thomas, in turn, went as a monk to the Dominican monastery in Visby, where he died in 1248.

Second Crusade 1238/1239  is it 1249?

Jar Birger made a trip from Sweden to Häme with the aim of calming Häme, fighting Novgorod and the Karelians.  attacks,  consolidates the position of the Catholic Church and Swedish power in Häme. In order to promote and secure these things, Janakkala was first born  Hakoinen castle mountain equipment  and later Hämeenlinna.

Third Crusade 1293

The result of this crusade was the Vyborg Castle "for the glory of God and the Virgin Mary, for the protection of the kingdom and for the safety of the sailors." The kingdom needed protection because the Karelians and Novgorod had allied against the Swedes. The King of Sweden decided to put an end to the ongoing attacks and robberies of Novgorodians in the Swedish-occupied territories and organized a crusade led by the Marshal of the Kingdom Marshal Tyrgils (Torkkeli Knuutinpoika). Tyrgils continued  The conquest of Karelia as far as the shores of Ladoga to Käkisalmi, but the people of Novgorod got it back. It was also bad for the company to gain control of the mouth of the Neva (the Novgorod trade), where a wooden castle had already been built. The castle could not withstand the attack and the Swedish troops had to retreat. Despite all his efforts  On behalf of the Swedish authorities, Tyrgils was beheaded in Stockholm in 1306.

Peace of Pähkinäsaari 1323

The peace of Pähkinäsaari was made "forever," but in reality it lasted about 300 years. At the same time, it ended the crusade period in Finland. Crusades  As a result, Finland was annexed to the Kingdom of Sweden, the Catholic Church and Western civilization. This limit can still be considered in general terms  eastern and western cultural circles  as the northern border.

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